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You Can Be a Teacher, Too
Part 4: Appendices
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Appendix A: A Demonstration in Communication
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Appendix A: A Demonstration in Communication
"Draw this figure from my spoken directions"
To test your communication ability, have one or more persons draw the figure above on unlined 8x11 paper as they listen to your spoken directions, only.
A. Do not allow the drawers to see the figure you are describing until all drawing is complete.
B. Do now look at what the drawers are drawing while they are still working.
C. Allow only one kind of question: "Will you repeat that please?"
Here is a paraphrase of successful directions for the drawing demonstration in Appendix A:
Hold your paper like you would if you were going to write a letter.
In the middle of the page, draw a circle about the size of a silver dollar and label it C.
About one inch above C, draw a rectangle about the size of a business card and call is B.
Connect B and C with a straight line. This will make C look like a pendulum hanging from the bottom of a clock.
Extend the left side of B about 1.5 inches up. This will be the first part of what we will call A.
Connect the upper end of the line you just drew with the upper right corner of B. This will complete a triangle we will call A. A will look like a wedge of cheese or a ramp.
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Appendix B: The Flutophone Demonstration
Role-playing the Seven Rules of Effective Teaching
The Flutophone Demonstration is an activity that role-plays these seven rules in both a positive and a negative fashion. I have used The Flutophone Demonstration to demonstrate these seven rules in countless workshops and seminars for adults of all education levels and walks of life. Without fail, the student who received the good instruction has gone from a bumbling squeaker to playing a recognizable rendition of Mary Had a Little Lamb while the audience watched. [Total time: about 15 minutes]
And, the student who got the bad instruction also learned to play Mary Had a Little Lamb when presented with the good lesson.
If you have a little knowledge of music, you may be able to take The Flutophone Demonstration and run with it. If you know nothing about music, you may need to practice on the Flutophone before you try it in a public workshop. All I can say is, it has worked for me, over and over again.
The Flutophone is a simple musical instrument consisting of a plastic whistle with a pipe attached. The pipe has holes that may be covered and uncovered to change the tone of the whistle. If you've ever been around children who have gotten hold of a Flutophone, you know how annoying the sound can be when the holes are covered erratically or incompletely. However, when played properly, as it is necessary to do in the beginning of the lesson, the Flutophone is capable of playing respectable music. In fact, it sounds a lot like a recorder, which is a real musical instrument.
Materials needed for the demonstration:
Three Flutophones are ideal. However, if only one or two are available, have enough medicinal alcohol available to immerse the whistle part of the Flutophone in order to sterilize it. Throughout the lesson, three persons will be playing: you and two students.
Masking tape; tape that is one inch wide is ideal.
A pointer for pointing to the notes on the transparency
An overhead transparency that contains the words and Flutophone fingering for Mary Had a Little Lamb, as shown below:
Had a Little Lamb
Ma - ry had a lit - tle lamb,
2 3 4 3 2 2 2
Lit - tle lamb, Lit - tle lamb.
3 3 2 0 0
Ma - ry had a lit - tle lamb,
2 3 4 3 2 2 2
Its fleece was white as snow!
2 3 3 2 3 4
The fingering on the chart above denotes the number of holes to be covered with the right hand on the bottom half of the pipe. This particular song has all four top holes covered with the left hand.
NOTE: Any transparency to be viewed by a group should be in Helvetica bold (sans serif) and a minimum of 18 points.
This script will be easier to follow if you request the three-hour audio recording of a You Can Be a Teacher, Too Workshop. We will mail the set of audio recordings [CDs or cassettes] to your door. The cost is USD $10.00 in the US and $15.00 outside the US to cover the cost of duplication and shipping. You may pay via cash or money order. Send your request to:
PO Box 473
Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA
Please specify your choice of four audio CDs or two C-90 cassette tapes.
This script should not be memorized word for word, nor should it be read. Memorize the basic concepts and their sequence. Then speak extemporaneously.
[Start the demonstration with the Flutophones out of sight and the overhead projector screen blank:]
We've been talking about the seven rules of effective teaching. Now, for the next fifteen minutes or so, I'm going to demonstrate some of the rules. For this demonstration, I need to have two volunteers. These volunteers need to be people who know absolutely nothing about music. You can't read music. You have never sung in public. You've never had even one music lesson. Let's see your hands!
[Survey the persons with raised hands carefully. Pick the one you think is the most outgoing for Part 1. Pick the one you think is the least outgoing for Part 2.]
All right. I think I have my two volunteers. Dick, you're going to go first, and Jane, you're going to go second. By the way, Jane, you need to be out of the room while Dick is doing his thing.
[Jane should be out of earshot, also. Wait until Jane is in a place where she probably can't hear what's going on. Then continue...]
Now, Dick, for this demonstration, you're going to learn to play the Flutophone!
[Bring out a Flutophone and show it for the first time.]
1. To give you an idea of what a Flutophone sounds like, I'm going to give you a little demonstration.
[Your demonstration should be the best Flutophone playing of which you are capable. I always use a song called Pretty Red Wing. It's in a good range to be played on the Flutophone. However, choose any song you like. You can even use Mary Had a Little Lamb. To be most effective, your demonstration should be played from memory. At this point in the lesson, you want to intimidate Dick and make him think he'll never be able to play as well as you.]
2. So, Dick, now it's time for you to learn to play the Flutophone.
[Bring out the Mary Had a Little Lamb overhead and put it on the screen. Give Dick a Flutophone or if you have only one, dip the mouthpiece in alcohol and give it to Dick.]
You make music on the Flutophone by covering and uncovering the holes as you blow. The song on the screen has a number below each word. That's how you tell how to cover and uncover the holes.
For this song, you only need to worry about the bottom four holes. The top four holes are always covered. The number 2 on the chart means the top two of the bottom four holes are covered and the bottom two of the bottom four are covered. The number 3 on the chart means the top three of the bottom four holes are covered and the bottom one of the bottom four are covered. And so forth, to the end of the song. Sounds pretty simple, don't you think?[A this point in Dick's part of the lesson, it's important that you speak rather fast and make something that is really fairly simple sound rather confusing. Of course, it's important that you don't say anything that's incorrect as far as playing the Flutophone is concerned.]
3. Okay, Dick, you play the notes as I point to the chart.
[Point to the first three or four notes fairly briskly, at about the speed you played the song during the demonstration. Chances are Dick will play some squeaks that won't pass for the first notes of the song. Giver him another chance.]
Remember, Dick, the numbers on the chart tell you how many of the holes to have covered and uncovered. Let's try it again.
[After a couple more squeaks, say...]
5. Sounds like you're having trouble with this song. Let's give Jane a chance.
[Have someone tell Jane it's time for part two in the demonstration. If you have only one Flutophone, use this time to sterilize the mouthpiece by dipping it in alcohol. Start Jane's part of the lesson with nothing on the screen and the Flutophone out of sight.]
6. Hi, Jane! How are you doing today? Before we start your part of the lesson, let's talk about the good old days, back when you were a kid and someone gave you a box of Cracker Jacks. What was the best part of opening a box of Cracker Jacks?
[Chances are Jane will say something about finding the prize.]Yeah, we all liked to find that prize didn't we? Ever find a whistle in your box of Cracker Jacks? Well, let me take you back to finding a whistle in your box of Cracker Jacks.
[Bring out the Flutophone mouthpiece without the pipe attached.]5. Here's a whistle for you to blow. Go ahead and give your whistle a toot. . . Is that all the louder you can blow your whistle? Make believe you're trying to drive everyone in the house crazy and let me really hear your whistle. . . . Great! That's the best whistle blowing I've heard all day!
[Now bring out the Flutophone pipe for the first time.]6. Okay, now we're going to start turning your whistle blowing into music. When I put this pipe on your Cracker Jacks whistle, you'll notice that the sound is pitched lower. That's always the way it is with wind instruments. When the air has to travel farther, the pitch gets lower.
[Put the Flutophone pipe onto the mouthpiece.]
7. This time, try to use a thuh sound when you blow, and don't blow quite so hard. That's excellent! Now I'm going to wrap some tape around the pipe so the top four holes are covered. This time when you blow, you'll hear the sound is even lower in pitch.
8. Now we're going to practice four more notes. You've already played with no holes covered, and that's called the open note. Next, just cover up the top hole of the bottom half of the pipe and blow gently. Good!. Now, cover the top two holes. Good. Now the top three holes. Great. Now the last note is a little tricky. You'll see the bottom hole on the pipe is really a double hole. To get the right sound with four holes covered, you need to wrap your pinky finger around the pipe so both the big hole and the little hole are covered.
[Be sure Jane gets a true note for each of the four covered positions, especially the bottom double hole.]
Great! You've just played all the notes which are needed in the first song you're going to play: Mary Had a Little Lamb, up there on the screen. This particular song only involves the bottom four holes in the pipe and that's why I covered the top four holes with the tape.
9. Now I'm going to demonstrate how this song sounds on the Flutophone. You take the pointer and point to each note, and when you point, look at my fingers on the Flutophone pipe. Okay, you point and watch my fingers, too, while I play.
[As Jane points, play the song in time with her pointing. Remember to sterilize the mouthpiece each time you switch the instrument back and forth if you only have one Flutophone.]
10. All right, now this time, we'll trade. I'll take the pointer and you take the Flutophone. But for the first time, let's just practice the fingering. When I point to a note, you cover the holes on the pipe according to the number on the chart.
[Point slowly and sing or chant the words. Don't point to the next note until Jane has her fingers in the proper position for the current note.]
Guess what, Jane, I think you're ready to play your first song! Are you excited? I know I am!
11. All set? Good! Let's play Mary Had a Little Lamb.
[Point to the notes of the song as Jane plays them, again not pointing to the next note until Jane has properly played the previous note. If she falters, don't rush her. Some Janes will giggle half way through and the audience may be wisecracking. However, all things considered, most Janes will be able to play a recognizable rendition of Mary Had a Little Lamb. I've done this demonstration in a live workshop setting many times over the years and I've never had anyone fail to play a recognizable version of Mary Had a Little Lamb.]]
12. Fantastic. Let's give Jane a big hand!
13. Before we talk about the demonstration of the seven rules you've just seen, let's bring Dick back into the room so he can have a chance to profit by the good techniques, also.
[When Dick comes back, zip through the rudiments of Jane's lesson. It's important for the entire group to see that the difference in Dick and Jane's performance was solely because of your techniques and not their potential to play the Flutophone.]
14. Now let's discuss the two flute lessons.
What did you like or not like about Dick's lesson. . . .
How about Jane's lesson. . .
of the Demonstration
This may be first time many of the members of the audience have ever seen actually learning take play right before their eyes. Since you've already covered the seven rules of effective teaching, they should be able to name most of the things you did wrong with poor Dick's lesson and most of the things you did right with Jane's lesson.
Take some time to let the people talk about what they liked and didn't like.
Encourage Dick and Jane to describe their feeling, also.
Here are the seven rules for your review:
1. Develop a positive relationship with the learner.
2. Avoid sarcasm and ridicule.
3. Begin with the known and relate it to the unknown.
4. Adjust your instruction to the initial learning level of the students.
5. Break a lesson into sequential learning objectives.
6. Reinforce the student's ability to perform/conform on a graduating scale.
7. Praise in public; correct in private.
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Appendix C: The Facts about Outcome-based Education (OBE)
Author's note: I wrote these facts originally March 10, 1993, while I was working for the Pennsylvania Department of Education as an education adviser. Much has been written and said against outcome-based education from the political and theological perspectives.
Now, consider the facts:
Outcome-Based Education is a method for organizing how we run our schools. There is no inherent evil in it, contrary to the beliefs of many evangelicals. The concept of OBE doesn't promote homosexuality, secular humanism, occult practices, immorality, the new age, or a new world order. Not by itself, it doesn't.
Outcome-Based Education is nothing but a wheelbarrow. You can use a wheelbarrow to haul fresh fruits and vegetables. Or, you can use a wheelbarrow to haul garbage. Outcome-Based Education can provide good education if the outcomes, methods, and materials are good.
Or- Outcome-Based Education can provide rotten education if the content of the curriculum is poor (or evil).
OBE Defined: Outcome-Based Education is just what the name implies. Instead of being time-based, it is outcome-based. Students get credit for learning specific things--, which are known as learning-outcomes-- not just for putting in their time. For example, if a child can read at the third grade level on the first day of kindergarten, true Outcome-Based Education says instruction should start at the third or fourth grade level, not way down at the Fun with Dick and Jane level.
With time-based education, WHEN a student learns a skill or fact is more important than WHETHER or not he or she learns it.
With Outcome-Based Education, time is irrelevant, WHETHER a skill is learned is the important thing.
If Outcome-Based Education is new, what is it replacing? For over 100 years, public schools in the United States have been organized according to calendar-based and clock-based education. Most public schools are in session 180 days a year, five and one half hours a day, for 13 years, counting kindergarten. So, Outcome-Based Education is replacing Time-Based Education.
Outcome-Based Education is driven by three cardinal laws of learning:
A. Don't teach a skill which has already been learned. This annoys students.
B. Don't teach a skill which will never be used. This bores students.
C. Don't teach a skill until the student is ready. This frustrates students.
Most children come to school loving it. What makes them start to dislike it? Being bored. Being annoyed. Being frustrated.
We adults hate anything that bores, annoys, and frustrates us, too.
Outcome-Based Education can be of particular value to students who attend private day schools or who are being schooled at home. Since the critical issues are what is known, not when it is learned, students can move into or out of an OBE program without experiencing gaps or overlaps in their education.
Gifted students may stand to gain the most from Outcome-Based Education. The converse is true; gifted students may lose the most if it is not fully implemented. Consider the TV sitcom character, Doogie Howser. This is a story of a teenager who became a physician while still in his early teens. With Outcome-Based Education, any child could be a real-life Doogie Howser if he or she has the mental ability to learn-- while still in the elementary grades-- the things a fledgling doctor needs to know in order to enter med school.
And if you smell garbage, yell loud and long.
This is a summary of an OBE workshop which Spady [a national OBE author] and company presented at Hatboro-Horsham School District (Pa.) May 14-15, 1992:
1 Spady's OBE stresses two key concepts: WHETHER is more important than WHEN, and education is the process of preparing persons for adult life.
2 This version of OBE is consistent with what good ... educators have been talking about for years.
3 Spady uses three key terms to describe "curriculum".
In descending order of value, they are:
4 Spady emphasizes the importance of designing curriculum from the top down and delivering it from the bottom up.
**A. Traditional, based on subject matter content.
**B. Transitional, based on higher-order competencies
**C. Transformational, based on complex role performance in authentic contexts (preparation for adult life).
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Glossary of Terms
Behavior shaping: The process of accepting, and reinforce a student's ability to perform/conform on a graduating scale. This technique is used in connection with positive reinforcement.
Behavioral techniques: Improving the behavior of others by such activities as contingency contracting, positive reinforcement, behavior shaping, delayed reinforcement (token economy) and time out.
Certification: The qualification of a teacher by a state education agency, usually based on training and experience. However, not all certified teachers are good teachers, unfortunately.
Chronological age (CA): The number of years a child has lived. CA is seldom used as a designation of persons who are above 13 years of age.
Classroom: The area where instruction takes place. The traditional classroom has chairs, desks, and a chalkboard. However, in the world of adult work, a classroom may be a conference room, the factory floor, a mockup of the passenger cabin of an airliner, or even the dining room of a restaurant.
Communication: The ability to transport ideas, concepts, and facts from your brain to someone else's brain.
Compassion: The ability to treat other persons as you like to be treated, as the Bible states in the Golden Rule.
Content: The accumulation of information that you are responsible for conveying to your students. If it's not in your brain, you need to know how to teach your students to find it.
Contingency contracting : A contingency contract is based on an if/then statement. The classic contingency contract exists between an employer or employees. If you do the things listed in your job description, Then I will give you a financial reward (pay check).
Control: The ability to structure the learning environment so all students have a chance to learn.
Corporate trainer: A person in a company who is responsible for training people to do new things. Such persons may not be expert workers on all tasks but they should be expert teachers.
Delayed reinforcement (token economy): The process of giving rewards for performance at some future time. Tokens are usually given as a promise of the reward. For children, such tokens may be poker chips or colored tickets. For adults, the classic token is a time sheet.
Discipline: Any process that is designed to improve future behavior and increase the chances of it being repeated and continued.
Flutophone: A simple musical instrument consisting of a plastic whistle with a pipe attached. The pipe has holes that may be covered to lower the tone of the whistle. A Flutophone is used in Appendix C to demonstrate good and bad teaching techniques.
In-service training: The process of training workers after they have been hired.
In-service training coordinator: The person who directs the process of training workers after they have been hired. See corporate trainer.
IQ (intelligence quotient): The mathematical of result of dividing a child's mental age by the chronological age. The average IQ is considered to be 100: a mental age of 10 divided by a chronological age of 10.
Job description: A written statement of the tasks an employee is expected to master. A job description should be in writing before an employee is hired, and eventual performance evaluation should be based on the job description.
Justification after the fact: In lesson planning, the process of first deciding the activities that will make up the lesson, and then thinking about all the good reasons why those activities should be used.
Learning objective: A statement beginning with a present-tense verb that states the outcome of the instruction.
Lesson plan: The methods and materials that will be used to achieve a learning objective or set of objectives.
Manuscript printing: Printing letters by using combinations of circles and lines. For example, an a is a circle with a short straight line to the right; a b is a circle with a tall straight line to the left; a c is a circle with a bite out of the right side; a d is a circle with a tall straight line to the right, and so on.
Materials: Things to be used by a teacher in carrying out a lesson plan.
Mental age: The amount of mental work a student can do in comparison to most of the other children of the same chronological age.
Methods: Techniques and activities used by a teacher in achieving a learning objective.
Outcome-based education: education based on what a student is able to do at the end of instruction, rather than an exposure to a specific amount of time to that instruction.
Parable: using the known to teach about the unknown.
Performance standards: specifying in a job description what will be used to evaluate performance on the job. Performance standards may include such elements as speed, quality, and quantity.
Positive reinforcement: Rewarding positive behavior while ignoring negative behavior. (Negative behavior that involves danger to self or others should not be ignored. Use a more structured technique such as time out.)
Present-tense verb: The front end of a properly worded instructional objective, such as: writes, reads, runs, jumps, types, assembles ad infinitum.
Psychological abuse: Causing mental stress by using sarcasm, ridicule, and slander.
Punishment: Causing mental or physical pain in order to prevent an action in the future.
Self-evaluation: Thinking about yourself and responding to a list of statements that may or may not describe you.
Student: A person in the process of learning something.
Supervisor: A person whose job description includes overseeing the work of others. On-the-job training and in-service training may be included.
Suspension: Removing a person from work status as part of sequence of disciplinary action. Suspension may be with or without pay. This is usually the third step in a sequence of disciplinary actions, following one or more written reprimands.
Teacher: Any persons who is responsible for helping students to achieve learning objective. Teachers may be professionally trained and certified. However, many persons have teacher responsibilities as part of their other job duties. See volunteer teacher.
Teacher's aide: A person who helps a teacher with such activities as preparing materials, aiding students with instruction. Many teacher's aides are not professionally trained nor certified; some are.
Time out: a place where students can go whose negative behavior cannot be tolerated. This may be a corner of the room (a time-honored tradition) or a chair. In the adult world, the ultimate time out is prison.
Verbal reprimand: talking to an employee about poor work performance. This is usually the first step in a sequence of disciplinary actions.
Volunteer education programs: instructional programs where are the teachers are not paid. Boy scouts, girl scouts, and Sunday school are classic examples of volunteer education programs. Although the teachers are not paid, they should be held just as responsible for using good teaching techniques, as described in this book.
Volunteer teacher: a teacher who is not paid.
Written reprimand: a memo that documents an employee's unsatisfactory work performance. This is usually the second step in a sequence of disciplinary actions, following a verbal reprimand.
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