Who Killed Jesus, and Why?

Share the Gospel with the children of the world for just pennies!
One US dollar will provide the Book of Hope to three children.

Chapter 7: Guidelines for the Use of Audio Visual Equipment

Now You Can Read the Church Worker Handbook
on Your Kindle

Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary


This is a set of guidelines to help those who encounter some of the older AV devices: cassette and reel to reel and cassette tape recorders, movie projector, slide projector, film strip projector, overhead projector, and CD audio recorder. If you don't have any of these items in your AV inventory, skip this chapter.


© 2004, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Consultation Services Available

DiskBooks
PO Box 473 -- Mechanicsburg, PA 17055

Click to Send E-Mail

Click to learn about . . .  
Listening to Christian Internet Radio 24/7 Worldwide

Links to Other Resources

Church Worker Handbook Table of Contents
Disclaimer
About the DiskBooks copyright
How to Download Church Worker Handbook Files
Return to Church Worker Handbook Home Page
Return to DiskBooks Home Page
Free Downloads

Most churches have an assortment of AV equipment. These guidelines are designed as an aid to church workers who may not be trained or experienced in the proper use of these items.

AV equipment was bought to be used. Some church workers decline to use it because of one or more of the following reasons:

1. The equipment is too expensive and we don't want to waste it.

2. If we use it we might break it.

3. We're saving it for something important.

4. If something happens to it we may be held responsible.

Your church should consider the following policy regarding AV equipment:

 

Tape Recorder

The tape recorder is a very versatile audiovisual tool and can be used in support of a wide variety of church activities.

Most recorders use cassette tapes. Their lengths are shown on the label as C-xx [with a numeral replacing the xx.] The numeral indicates the length of the tape in minutes. A C-90 means the tape will run a total of 90 minutes; 45 minutes on each side.

The tape always moves from left to right as you look at the tape, with label side facing you and the open tape facing down. Although some portable recorders require you to insert the tape with tape side facing up, and tape moving from right to left, you can still visualize the tape movement as left to right.

Older may recorders use 1/4 inch tape and are known as reel to reel recorders.. The tape is customarily wound on a seven inch reel in lengths of from 1,200 to 1,800 ft. The length of the tape will depend upon the type of plastic backing used. Some tapes are thinner and much more tape can be wound on one seven inch reel.

Digital Audio CD Recorder

Most of the newer computers have the capability to burn [record] compact disks [CDs]. It is possible to buy a stand-alone digital audio CD recorder that works much like the cassette and reel to reel recorders work. The primary difference is the CD recorder uses blank CDs instead of cassette or reel tapes.

The blank CDs for such a recorder must be marked music or sound, instead of data. A typical blank CD for a CD recorder will be marked MUSIC CD-R and will hold up to 80 minutes of recorded material [700 mb].

The advantages of the digital audio CD recorder over the cassette tape recorder are as follows:

  1. CDs are more durable than tape.

  2. CDs may be used in any regular CD player; since cassette tapes will go the way of the eight-track tapes, it makes sense to position yourself to go with CDs.

If you are comfortable using a cassette recorder to make broadcast-quality recordings, you should be able to use a CD audio recorder with little trouble.

Caution: High-end cassette and CD recorders may not have inputs for mikes. Apparently manufacturers assume that purchasers of such equipment will already have a mike mixer for providing mike input.

General Controls

The majority of the tape recorders manufactured today are operated by very similar controls. These may be push buttons or levers and may be marked by a variety of symbols. They tend to achieve the same function.

  1. Play. This control operates the forward operation of the tape transport mechanism and will play back recordings which have already been made.

  2. Record. Pressing Play and Record simultaneously will start the recording. Caution: It is possible to record on top of previous recordings you have made and erase those recordings. However, this is unlikely to happen with a commercial cassette recording because a safety tab has been removed along the edge of the cassette opposite the tape. You can provide this same precaution with recordings you make by removing this safety tab. Note: if you change your mind and decide to record over a recording with has been protected by the removal of this safety tab, you can reuse this tape by placing a small piece of tape over the tab hole.

  3. Stop. This control stops the forward motion of the recorder during either the play/record or fast forward/rewind functions.

  4. Pause. The pause or instant stop control is used to freeze the tape instantaneously for editing or special effects. Putting the recorder in record mode plus Pause will enable you to monitor your recordings levels before actually starting the recording.

  5. Fast Forward. This control permits rapid forward advance of the tape for the purpose of picking up a recording in the middle or near the end of a cassette.

  6. Rewind. This control permits rapid reverse of the tape for the purpose of returning to the beginning of a recorded portion.

    Caution: The fast forward-rewind controls should never be moved from one direction to another without pausing in the neutral position and allowing the tape to come to a complete stop. Some recorders have quick change controls which permit this action to made safely, but check before you try it.

  7. Speed. Most reel to reel tape recorders are manufactured with at least two speeds: 7.5 ips (inches per second) and 3.75 ips. This designation refers to speed at which the tape is drawn across the recording head. It should be noted that higher quality recordings result with the use of the fastest speed available on the machine. Anything below 3.75 should be reserved for voice recording only. Piano music should never be attempted at anything but 7.5.

  8. There is an obvious relationship between the recording speed and the recording time for a given reel of tape. For example, a 1200 ft. reel of tape will run for 45 minutes at 7.5 ips and for 90 minutes at 3.75 ips.

Threading the Tape
On most reel to reel tape recorders, the transport mechanism carries the tape from left to right. Therefore the full or feed reel should be placed on the left hand spindle and the empty or makeup reel should be placed on the right spindle. The tape should come off the reel with the coated (dull) side towards the top or back of the machine. The sound is actually captured on this coated side.

Pull off enough free tape to reach through the head channel and around the takeup reel two or three times. During this process make sure the tape is not twisted with the coated side toward the bottom or front of the recorder. If this happens, normal recording or playback is impossible.

Tape Counter. The counter is used for indexing the tape. This permits the location of a specific portion even though it may be in the middle or near the end of 90-minute tape. Many counters actually measure each revolution of the feed reel on its axis. However, some counters measure real time in minutes and seconds.

The counter should always be set to zero at the point the first recording on the tape is begun. Each time this tape is reused, it will be possible to pick up an indexed recording by allowing the tape to run until sound begins, stopping it instantly, and setting the counter to zero.

The counter should always be used when making a recording. At the time the recording is begun, check the counter and make a note of its setting. It will then be possible to turn to the exact point the recording began without playing hide and seek games with the fast forward and rewind controls.

Suggested Procedure for Making Recordings

  1. Advance or rewind tape to a section which you do not wish to keep. It is important to remember that the record process automatically erases anything previously recorded on that section of the tape.

  2. Plug in microphone or know the exact location of a built-in condenser mike.

  3. Place on pause by pressing Play and Record simultaneously. This will place the recorder in the record mode but tape will not start to advance until you are ready.

  4. With the machine in this mode an adjustment can be made of the proper recording level. As a general rule the volume control should be set in the middle of its range for recording. However, if the sound source is particularly loud or close, it may be necessary to back it off to about 1/3 of its range. If the sound source is faint or far from the microphone the volume control should be advanced to its maximum.

  5. Most recorders have some sort of recording level indicator. It may be a needle on a VU (volume units) meter or a LED [light-emitting diode] display. Less expensive recorders may have ALC (automatic level controls) which cannot be adjusted. If you can adjust the volume, it should be adjusted so that the distort level of recording is indicated only on the higher peaks of sound. If a distort level is indicated continuously this means you will get a poor recording with an unpleasant, distorted sound.

  6. After the proper recording level has been established, release the pause control and the recording will begin.

  7. It is not always necessary to use the pause in the record mode to establish proper recording level. If you're recording similar sounds or under similar circumstances you may be able to estimate the recording level.

  8. It is possible to eliminate much of the noise of starting and stopping the tape recorder during the record mode by keeping the volume turned down when starting the machine and then quickly advancing it to the desired level. The reverse is done when the machine is stopped. Turn the volume down and then push the stop button.

  9. Avoid handling the microphone or touching the microphone wire during recording. This will result in an unpleasant rustling, thumping or crackling sound which detracts from the recording. It is also important that papers not be rustled or shuffled near the microphone. (A very realistic sound of a forest fire can be achieved by crumbling large sheets of newspaper in front of a sensitive microphone.)

Direct Recording

It is possible to record sound from another tape recorder, a radio, or a television set without using a microphone. This is known as direct or line recording and is achieved by connecting the output of any audiovisual device to the auxiliary input of the tape recorder. In this manner a recording can be made without worrying about ambient noise in the room. Furthermore, the quality of the recorded sound can be up to 95% of the quality of the original sound.

A special cord is required for this type of recording. The cord must be fitted with proper male plugs on either end for matching the female output plugs of the machine originating the sound and the female input plugs of the tape recorder being used to record the sound.

The average user of a tape recorder may feel uncomfortable in setting up for a direct recording. It is not something so complicated, however, that cannot be mastered by any program person who knows how to record with a recorder under normal circumstances.

Tip: If the plugs fit the jacks, and you don't hear an unpleasant buzzing sound, the chances are quite good that an acceptable recording will be made.

Projectors

These suggestions may be applied to movie, film strip, slide and overhead projectors.

A projector may be used in any room regardless of the amount of light in the room. The machine is simply moved closer to the surface being used for projection until the image is bright enough. The following rule should be remembered: as the projector is moved closer to the screen, the image becomes smaller and brighter; as the projector is moved away from the screen the image becomes larger and dimmer. It is best to have a darkened room for a big picture but an undarkened room can be used if a smaller picture is satisfactory.

The projector should be positioned, elevated, and pre-focused (area of light with sharp edges) before the film is threaded. All these preparations should be completed before the audience is assembled for the show.

A projector should not be moved after use until the lamp has had a chance to cool. The lam

p may be cooled by running the fan with the lamp off. The lamp is very easily damaged when it is hot.

All projectors should be handled with care. This is particularly important when going through doorways and on stairways.

Screens and Projector Surfaces

A silver lenticular screen provides the ideal projection surface. A beaded glass screen can be used if the light environment is not as critical. In the absence of a screen it is possible to use any light-colored surface. A large piece of white construction paper makes an ideal screen for small groups viewing at short projection distances. The back of a wall map or chart can also be used as a screen with good results.

Projection equipment with brighter projected images require less sophisticated projection surfaces. As a general rule the overhead projector has the greatest versatility in this regard followed by the 35 mm slide projector, 35 mm filmstrip projector and 16 mm movie projector in descending order.

Audience seating patterns are very important in relationship to the screen or projection surface. The projected image appears to be most sharp and bright when viewed from immediately behind the projector. [Move around the room and view the image from different angels when setting up a show.] As the viewer moves away from the projector to either side, the image appears to be less bright in relation to the distance from the projector. This decrease in brightness is more noticeable when using auxiliary projection surfaces.

Viewers should not be permitted to sit close to the front of the room at the extreme right or left of the screen.

Film Strip Projector

The film strip projector is a useful educational tool for showing still pictures. The projector uses 35mm film in a continuous roll of from 36 to 100 frames.

Threading the Projector

  1. Always handle the film strip by the edge. Finger prints on the projected areas will be detrimental to the projected image.

  2. Make sure the film has been rewound. The first frame should read focus, followed by a title frame. If the first frame says "the end" simply rewind the strip manually and start at the beginning.

  3. Insert film in channel at top of projector making sure film is pushed down to the level of the advance knob. A sprocket wheel on the axle of the advance knob will then pull the film through the machine.

Framing the Image:
The machine is constructed to advance the film one frame for each click of the advance knob. In order to align the frame, turn the framing control on the axle of the advance knob.

Rewind:
After the entire filmstrip has been projected advance it out of the machine and rewind manually, holding the film by the edges.

Automatic Filmstrip Projector
The automatic filmstrip projector uses a mechanical film advance activated by an audio signal from a sound track. The advance of the frames is thereby synchronized to the sound track.

 

Slide Projector

Loading Slides into Carousel Slide Reel

  1. Remove locking ring in top center of reel.

  2. Insert slide in numbered compartments upside down with coated (dull) side toward the lower numeral.

  3. Replace locking ring.

  4. Check bottom of reel making sure slot on edge of metal plate is lined up with the blank space between slide 1 and slide 80.

  5. Place projection reel on top of machine with zero pointed toward mark on right side of machine (facing screen).

Basic Controls

  1. Fan. This control runs the fan motor without activating the projection lamp. It is used after a show for cooling the lamp.

  2. Low. This control activates the fan and projection lamp at a low light intensity. This is used for short projection distances or for previewing slides.

  3. High. This activates the projection lamp at its highest light intensity.

  4. Reverse. This activates the slide changing mechanism from a higher to a lower numbered slide.

  5. Forward. This activates the slide changing mechanism from a lower to a higher numbered slide.

  6. Select. This control has a dual function.

    a. When a slide is in the projection chamber, the select control will eject the slide back into the reel without advancing the reel to the next position. With the locking ring removed, the slide can then be taken from the reel for editing purposes.

    b. With the select control depressed, the slide reel can be rotated freely on its spindle. In this way individual slides can be selected without unnecessary changer action. The carousel must be returned to zero to remove it from the spindle.

  7. Timer. Slides can be projected automatically by moving the timer control from manual to one of the numeral designations. The numerals represent the number of seconds each slide will remain on the screen before advancing to the next highest numeral. All automatic changes go from a lower to a higher numbered slide. It is possible to override the timer by pushing the forward button. Make sure the timer dial is returned to manual before attempting to remove the reel from the machine.

Manual Projection. It is practical to project a limited number of loose slides without using the Carousel reel. Simply place the slide in the projection chamber making sure it is upside down with the dull or coated side toward the screen. The slide is ejected from the chamber by pressing the select button.

The Overhead Projector

The overhead projector is designed to project an image from a transparent film. A light source below a glass projection table shines through the transparency and on to a mirror in the projection head and hence to the screen.

Basic Controls

  1. Focus. The image is focused by turning a knob which raises or lowers the projection head on the metal upright.

  2. Elevate. The image is raised or lowered on the screen by adjusting the mirror on the projection head.

  3. Framing. The image can be further adjusted and framed on the screen by moving the transparency on the light table.

Making Transparencies

  1. Grease Pencil. The simplest method of making a transparency is to write on an acetate sheet with a grease pencil. Unfortunately, this is not a permanent image and can be smudged with a pointer or finger.

  2. Photocopier. A permanent transparency can easily be made by making a copy of any image with transparency film in the paper tray. Make sure the transparency film is rated for a photocopier.

  3. Laser Printer. High-quality transparencies can be made with a laser printer, with laser transparency film in the paper tray.

  4. CAUTION: Your transparency film must be rated for a laser printer. Do not use film rated for a photo copier or you may damage the printer.

  5. Adding Color to Transparencies
    Transparencies made on clear sheets can be enhanced through the use of a colored pen or pencil by cutting out bits of adhesive acetate for attaching them to specific areas of transparency.

  6. Additional details can be added to a transparency through the use of an overlay. The basic transparency is made and projected with the additional detail added by means of a second transparency which is laid down on the first.

  7. Framing. All transparencies should be framed before projection. This provides a clear, sharp border around the transparency and makes it much easier to handle. There is also a provision for indexing information.

  8. Commercially Prepared Transparencies. A wide variety of commercially prepared transparencies are available on almost any subject. These include simple transparencies in black and white, transparencies in color, and relatively complicated overlays.

Chief Advantages of the Overhead Projector

 

16 MM Movie Projectors

Sixteen millimeter movie projectors are becoming less popular with the increased popularity of the VCR and the DVD. However, these guidelines are provided in case you still have a movie projector.

Terms to Understand:

  1. Sprocket. A roller with little lugs on the outside edge that match the holes in the edge of the film. The sprocket usually has a cover that snaps up to permit threading.

  2. Gate. A channel in front of the lamp through which the film must pass. The lens may swing out to open the gate or the gate cover may simply snap forward to permit access.

  3. Loop. A 'U' of film usually formed above and below the gate.

  4. Sound Drum. A large smooth roller with no little lugs.

  5. Feed Reel. The reel with the film on it.

  6. Take-Up-Reel. The empty reel on which the film will be wound as it is projected.

Controls

  1. Most projectors have a two-position control for the motor. The first position runs the motor only and the second runs the motor and the lamp.

  2. The amplifier is usually turned on with the volume knob. If the projector has a separate switch for "exciter lamp", be certain this is turned on or you will get no sound.

  3. The film speed control should be set for "sound", unless a silent movie is shown. This control changes the speed at which the film is projected. Sound film: 24 frames per second. Silent film: 18 frames per second.

Reels. The feed reel should be placed on the spindle which does not turn when the projector is running in a forward direction. The film should come off the front of the reel with the sprocket holes toward the operator. The holes in the film must match the lugs on the sprocket. The feed reel and the take-up reel will always turn in the same direction.

Threading: (General instructions for all projectors)

  1. Pull off a few feet of film.

  2. Place film over top sprocket and close over.

  3. Form loop, pass through gate, form lower loop.

  4. Pass film over or around sound drum.

  5. Pass film over lower sprocket, close cover, and run onto take-up reel.

Most projectors have basic threading information printed right on them.

Rewinding:

  1. The film must be free of the machine and must travel directly from the take-up reel back to the feed reel.

  2. The lamp should not be on during rewind.

  3. When showing a movie of more than one reel, all reels may be shown one after the other. Use the feed reel of the first reel of the film as the takeup reel for the second reel of the film. All reels should be rewound at the end of the show.

Caution: During the rewind, reels are moving very rapidly. Keep hands, hair, etc. free of spinning reels. Serious injury and/or damage to the film or projector can result.

Failure to Rewind: The film should be rewound by the person who used it last. The film distributors' request "Do Not Rewind" is ignored by everyone except the last person to use the film.

If a picture appears on the screen upside down the film probably was not rewound. Reverse reels, rewind, and project.

Splicing

Video Cassette Recorder [VCR]

There are several formats of VCRs. However, the most popular, and the acknowledged standard, is VHS. Therefore, all comments here will relate to VHS format. In addition, these comments are of a general nature and apply to regular VCRs as well as VCR large-screen projectors.

Playback of a previously-made recording will be all we will discuss here. If you want to made a recording, consult your VCR's owner manual.

General Controls
The majority of the VCRs manufactured today are operated by very similar controls. They tend to achieve the same function.

Inserting Tape. Insert the tape with the tape window facing up and the label facing you. Make sure the small arrow is pointing toward the back of the machine.

  1. Play. This control operates the forward operation of the tape transport mechanism and will play back recordings which have already been made.

  2. Stop. This control stops the forward motion of the recorder during either the play or fast forward/rewind functions.

  3. Fast Forward. This control permits rapid forward advance of the tape for the purpose of picking up a recording in the middle or near the end of a cassette.

  4. Rewind. This control permits rapid reverse of the tape for the purpose of returning to the beginning of a recorded portion.

  5. Speed. Most VCRs will switch to the playback speed which is equal to the speed of the recording. If this does not happen, you may need to change the speed.

  6. Pause/Still. The pause or instant stop control is used to freeze the tape instantaneously for special effects.

  7. Eject. This control ejects the tape.

Tape Counter.
The counter is used for indexing the tape. This permits the location of a specific portion even though it may be in the middle or near the end of a two-hour tape. Early counters measured each revolution of the feed reel on its axis. However, counters on newer VCRs measure real time in minutes and seconds.

The counter should always be set to zero at the point the first recording on the tape is begun. Each time this tape is reused, it will be possible to pick up an indexed recording by allowing the tape to run until the picture begins, stopping it instantly, and setting the counter to zero.

The counter should always be used when making a recording. At the time the recording is begun, check the counter and make a note of its setting. It will then be possible to return to the exact point the recording began without playing hide and seek games with the fast forward and rewind controls.

Set Up
Make sure the program portion of the tape is ready to play before your audience assembles. Your audience shouldn't have to sit through the FBI warning about unlawful duplication, or other similar material.

If your VCR's controls are hard to read in the dark, you may want to mark those controls with colored vinyl tape.

 

Church Worker Handbook Table of Contents
Disclaimer
About the DiskBooks copyright
How to Download Church Worker Handbook Files
Return to Church Worker Handbook Home Page
Return to DiskBooks Home Page
Free Downloads


Links to Other Resources

Click for a Free Download of this DiskBook in PDF Format

 

To Send E-Mail, click the link below. Free E-Mail consultation available:


Click to Send E-Mail

This product is an excellent tool for creating IEPs and curricula. It consists of the following components:

  • 16 Subject Areas
  • 105 Goal Areas under the Subject Areas
  • 4,830 Objectives under the Goal Areas
  • 2,719 Suggested Activities for achieving the objectives.